Team:Cornell/project/modeling

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<h1 style="margin-top: 0px;">Effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor system</h1>
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<h1>Effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor system</h1>
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To determine the effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor with  
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To determine the effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor with  
<i> E. Coli</i> which has been engineered to express a mercury transport system and metallothionein, we modelled its impact when applied to a current real situation, mercury pollution in Onondaga Lake, Syracuse, NY.
<i> E. Coli</i> which has been engineered to express a mercury transport system and metallothionein, we modelled its impact when applied to a current real situation, mercury pollution in Onondaga Lake, Syracuse, NY.
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It has been shown that similar hollow fiber bioreactors are able to reduce the concentration of mercury from 2mg/L to about 5 µg/L.[1] This corresponds to a promising 99.8% reduction in mercury levels. Furthermore as discussed in our case study, Onodaga Lake has a capacity of 35 billion gallons and about 165,000 lbs of mercury has been dumped into the lake over the years.[2] This corresponds to an approximate mercury concentration of 0.56 mg/L. Thus, the mercury concentration is Onodaga Lake is within the limits that the engineered <i> E. Coli</i> is able to sequester.   
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It has been shown that similar hollow fiber bioreactors are able to reduce the concentration of mercury from 2mg/L to about 5 µg/L.[1] This corresponds to a promising 99.8% reduction in mercury levels. Furthermore as discussed in our case study, Onodaga Lake has a capacity of 35 billion gallons and about 165,000 lbs of mercury has been dumped into the lake over the years.[2] This corresponds to an approximate mercury concentration of 0.56 mg/L. Thus, the mercury concentration is Onodaga Lake is within the limits that the engineered  
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<i> E. Coli</i> is able to sequester.   
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In Nov 2004, the estimated cost of dredging to remove the mercury contaminated mud in the lake was determined to be $451 million.[3] Currently the cost of our hollow fiber bioreactor system is about $560 with the cost being largely due to the reactor itself ($490) and the remainder of the cost was for the pump and filters.  
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In Nov 2004, the estimated cost of dredging to remove the mercury contaminated mud in the lake was determined to be $451 million.[3] Currently the cost of our hollow fiber bioreactor system is about $560 with the cost being largely due to the reactor itself ($490) and the remainder of the cost was for the pump and filters.  
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However, it should be noted that the scale of the hollow fiber bioreactor system is much smaller as its volume is about 1L. Hence, the hollow fiber bioreactor would have to be scaled up significantly (by about 10E11 times!) in order to have any impact. To give a better idea of the scale, if the lake were the size of an Olympic swimming pool, the volume of the hollow fiber bioreactor would be equivalent to a drop of water. While we would need to scale up the volume of our hollow fiber bioreactor, it should also be noted that by placing the bioreactors in series, better mercury sequestration is achieved. [1]  
However, it should be noted that the scale of the hollow fiber bioreactor system is much smaller as its volume is about 1L. Hence, the hollow fiber bioreactor would have to be scaled up significantly (by about 10E11 times!) in order to have any impact. To give a better idea of the scale, if the lake were the size of an Olympic swimming pool, the volume of the hollow fiber bioreactor would be equivalent to a drop of water. While we would need to scale up the volume of our hollow fiber bioreactor, it should also be noted that by placing the bioreactors in series, better mercury sequestration is achieved. [1]  
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<img src="http://2014.igem.org/wiki/images/e/e0/Cornell_Onondaga_Lake_Park.jpg" alt="Onondaga Lake Park: Syracuse, NY"
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Onondaga Lake Park: Syracuse, NY
Onondaga Lake Park: Syracuse, NY
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<img src="http://2014.igem.org/wiki/images/1/1f/CORNELL2014_OveralBox.JPG" alt="Hollow fiber bioreactor system"  
<img src="http://2014.igem.org/wiki/images/1/1f/CORNELL2014_OveralBox.JPG" alt="Hollow fiber bioreactor system"  
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Hollow fiber bioreactor system
Hollow fiber bioreactor system
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Therefore, even though it has been shown that the hollow fiber bioreactor is successful on a pilot scale, more tests would be required to determine if it is as effective on a larger scale. As there are several variables that might change eg. flow rates and membrane area, the performance of the engineered  
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Therefore, even though it has been shown that the hollow fiber bioreactor is successful on a pilot scale, more tests would be required to determine if it is as effective on a larger scale. As there are several variables that might change eg. flow rates and membrane area, the performance of the engineered <i> E. Coli</i> might not simply scale up as expected. Nevertheless, given the environmental costs associated with existing remediation methods such as dredging, it is important to look into how biological systems are able to complement these solutions and solve the problem of mercury contamination in an effective, safe and cost efficient manner.  
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<i> E. Coli</i> might not simply scale up as expected. Nevertheless, given the environmental costs associated with existing remediation methods such as dredging, it is important to look into how biological systems are able to complement these solutions and solve the problem of mercury contamination in an effective, safe and cost efficient manner.  
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No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure? On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee.
 
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The quick, brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. DJs flock by when MTV ax quiz prog. Junk MTV quiz graced by fox whelps. Bawds jog, flick quartz, ex nymphs. Waltz, bad nymph, for quick jigs vex! Fox nymphs grab quick-jived waltz. Brick quiz whangs jumpy veldt fox. Bright vixens jump; dozy fowl quack.
 
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<h1 style="margin-bottom: 0px">References</h1>
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<li>Moriarty, Rick. "Discovering What Lies at the Bottom of Onondaga Lake." Syracuse.com. Syracuse.com, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.</li>
<li>Moriarty, Rick. "Discovering What Lies at the Bottom of Onondaga Lake." Syracuse.com. Syracuse.com, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.</li>
<li>Collin, Glen. "Onondaga Lake Dredging Begins for Season; Could End a Year Early (video)." Syracuse.com. N.p., 7 Apr. 2014. Web. 11 Aug. 2014.</li>
<li>Collin, Glen. "Onondaga Lake Dredging Begins for Season; Could End a Year Early (video)." Syracuse.com. N.p., 7 Apr. 2014. Web. 11 Aug. 2014.</li>
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Revision as of 18:08, 17 October 2014

Cornell iGEM

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Modeling

Effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor system

To determine the effectiveness and economic feasibility of our hollow fiber bioreactor with E. Coli which has been engineered to express a mercury transport system and metallothionein, we modelled its impact when applied to a current real situation, mercury pollution in Onondaga Lake, Syracuse, NY.

It has been shown that similar hollow fiber bioreactors are able to reduce the concentration of mercury from 2mg/L to about 5 µg/L.[1] This corresponds to a promising 99.8% reduction in mercury levels. Furthermore as discussed in our case study, Onodaga Lake has a capacity of 35 billion gallons and about 165,000 lbs of mercury has been dumped into the lake over the years.[2] This corresponds to an approximate mercury concentration of 0.56 mg/L. Thus, the mercury concentration is Onodaga Lake is within the limits that the engineered E. Coli is able to sequester.

In Nov 2004, the estimated cost of dredging to remove the mercury contaminated mud in the lake was determined to be $451 million.[3] Currently the cost of our hollow fiber bioreactor system is about $560 with the cost being largely due to the reactor itself ($490) and the remainder of the cost was for the pump and filters.

However, it should be noted that the scale of the hollow fiber bioreactor system is much smaller as its volume is about 1L. Hence, the hollow fiber bioreactor would have to be scaled up significantly (by about 10E11 times!) in order to have any impact. To give a better idea of the scale, if the lake were the size of an Olympic swimming pool, the volume of the hollow fiber bioreactor would be equivalent to a drop of water. While we would need to scale up the volume of our hollow fiber bioreactor, it should also be noted that by placing the bioreactors in series, better mercury sequestration is achieved. [1]

Onondaga Lake Park: Syracuse, NY Onondaga Lake Park: Syracuse, NY
Hollow fiber bioreactor system Hollow fiber bioreactor system
Therefore, even though it has been shown that the hollow fiber bioreactor is successful on a pilot scale, more tests would be required to determine if it is as effective on a larger scale. As there are several variables that might change eg. flow rates and membrane area, the performance of the engineered E. Coli might not simply scale up as expected. Nevertheless, given the environmental costs associated with existing remediation methods such as dredging, it is important to look into how biological systems are able to complement these solutions and solve the problem of mercury contamination in an effective, safe and cost efficient manner.

References


  1. Chen, S., Kim, E., Shuler, M., & Wilson, D. (1998). Hg2+ Removal by Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli in a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor. Biotechnology Progress, 667-671
  2. Moriarty, Rick. "Discovering What Lies at the Bottom of Onondaga Lake." Syracuse.com. Syracuse.com, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.
  3. Collin, Glen. "Onondaga Lake Dredging Begins for Season; Could End a Year Early (video)." Syracuse.com. N.p., 7 Apr. 2014. Web. 11 Aug. 2014.

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